Further, as reported in December 2018, Afghanistan ranked second among the worst places in the world to be a woman. The report quoted a project of the Thomson Reuters Foundation, which conducted a poll on the world’s worst places to be a woman. According to the poll, Afghanistan is ranked second, with India at rank 1, Syria at 3, Somalia at 4 and Saudi Arabia at 5. Women in today’s Afghanistan face a host of daily threats in the form of insurgency violence, honour killing, stoning to death, beatings, rape, giving away of girls in marriage to resolve disputes, enforced prostitution, burning or using chemical substances to deface, and forced immolation or suicide, mostly in the name of religion and tribal customs.
Three decades of war and devastation has ruined the social fabric of the entire nation. The deep-rooted social conditioning of women has forced them to stay away from the political, social and economic mainstream of the country for a considerable period of time. Even after the ouster of the Taliban, most women still live in fear and suffer under a veil of silence, as violence is meted out by family members and conservative groups.
The factors contributing to this violence include the failure to deal decisively with perpetrators; a culture of impunity; perceptions that violence against women is ‘normal’; illiteracy and low levels of public awareness; traditional patterns of marriage; corruption and abuse of state positions; women’s limited access to justice; the lack of security; and weakness of state authority in the districts and provinces.
Nevertheless, there have been some visible gains for women. The maternal mortality rate in Afghanistan reduced from 1,340 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 396 in 2015, (according to World Bank data). Also, in contrast to the strict Taliban years, when women were banned from work, made to wear a full-length burqa that covered their face and not allowed out without a male relative, a March, 2019 report, states that women in Afghanistan now constitute 27 per cent each in Parliament and in the civil service.
Talks between the Taliban and the US are a serious source of concern for Women’s rights activists, with many worried that a deal between the two sides could erode the hard-won freedoms and rights of Afghan women and girls in exchange for peace. Kabul-based women’s rights activist Maqadasa Atalwali observed, “We need to keep up the fight and be prepared for what may come to Afghanistan in the near future.”
The Taliban, who have disruptive influence in nearly half of Afghanistan, are seeking to impose their harsh interpretation of Islam in areas they control. Unsurprisingly, the US military has stopped disclosing estimates of how much of Afghanistan is controlled by the Taliban (as well as fatalities in various categories, including civilians).The decision to end these assessments, which have been produced in various forms since 2010, was published in the latest quarterly report by the American Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). According to the SIGAR, Quarterly Report, published on April 30, 2019:
This quarter, the U.S.-commanded NATO Resolute Support (RS) mission in Afghanistan formally notified SIGAR that it is no longer assessing district-level insurgent or government control or influence. The RS mission said the district-level stability assessments were "of limited decision-making value to the [RS"> Commander…. According to the NATO RS mission, control of Afghanistan's districts, population, and territory has become more contested over the last two years, resulting in a stalemated battlefield environment between the ANDSF and the insurgency.
The plight of women (who constitute 48.52 per cent of the total population of 37,209,007) in Afghanistan has been pulled into focus in recent months, as many in the war-torn country worry that the limited rights available to women will be lost if the United States makes a deal with the Taliban. US negotiations with the Taliban are dangerous for the already deteriorating situation, particularly for women in the country. Since the commencement of peace talks between the US and the Taliban, there has been extremely limited participation and involvement of women, and the future of women in Afghanistan is falling further into darkness.